Thickening the Plot: The Science Behind Xanthan Gum in Food Processing

what is xanthan gum used for in food

Xanthan gum, a substance you might often spot in ingredient lists, is more integral to food processing than one might assume at first glance. This biopolymer is not just a filler; it is a crucial component that improves texture and consistency across a broad spectrum of food products. Produced through the fermentation of glucose, sucrose, or lactose by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris, xanthan gum serves as a thickener, stabilizer, and emulsifier in foods ranging from salad dressings and sauces to ice creams and gluten-free baked goods. Its unique properties make it a favorite among food manufacturers for maintaining the quality and stability of food products.

The focus of this article is to delve deep into the scientific underpinnings of how xanthan gum functions within food processing. We will explore its molecular interactions, the benefits it brings to food products, and the challenges involved in its production. Understanding the science behind xanthan gum not only illuminates its widespread use in the food industry but also highlights its importance in meeting consumer demands for quality and consistency in food products. Join us as we thicken the plot and uncover the dynamic role of xanthan gum in the modern food industry.

xanthan gum used for in food

What is Xanthan Gum?

Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide, a type of carbohydrate that consists of numerous sugar molecules bonded together. It is specifically a high molecular weight polysaccharide, which means it is made up of a long chain of glucose molecules linked together through a complex branching structure. This structure is what gives xanthan gum its unique properties as a thickening and stabilizing agent.

Natural Fermentation Process

The production of xanthan gum is a fascinating example of biotechnology at work. It involves the fermentation of simple sugars by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris, which is naturally found on various leafy green vegetables like cabbage and cauliflower. During this process, the bacteria consume the sugars and convert them into xanthan gum through a series of biochemical reactions.

  1. Preparation of the Culture Medium: The first step in producing xanthan gum is preparing a culture medium that contains carbohydrates such as glucose or sucrose, which serve as the primary energy and carbon source for the bacteria. Nutrients like nitrogen sources, vitamins, and minerals are also added to optimize bacterial growth and gum production.
  2. Inoculation and Fermentation: The culture medium is sterilized, cooled, and then inoculated with a small amount of Xanthomonas campestris. The fermentation is carried out in large fermenters under controlled conditions of temperature, pH, and aeration to maximize the yield of xanthan gum. The bacteria synthesize xanthan gum as an extracellular product, meaning it is secreted outside their cells.
  3. Recovery and Purification: After fermentation, the broth contains xanthan gum mixed with bacterial cells and other medium components. The xanthan gum is recovered by precipitating it with an alcohol (like isopropanol), then it is dried and ground into a fine powder. Further purification steps may involve treatments to remove any remaining proteins, lipids, and other impurities.

This efficient and sustainable process yields xanthan gum that is highly effective as a food additive, providing viscosity and stability to various food products. Its ability to withstand different temperatures and pH levels, along with its compatibility with various salts and enzymes, makes it incredibly versatile in food processing. The controlled fermentation of Xanthomonas campestris is not only a marvel of microbial activity but also a testament to the ingenuity of modern food science.

Historical Context

The history of xanthan gum is a classic example of innovation driven by need and refined through scientific research. Developed in the early 1960s by scientists at the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), xanthan gum was originally created as a cost-effective and more efficient substitute for other stabilizers and thickeners used in various industries, including food and oil drilling.

Development and Adoption in the Food Industry

Xanthan gum quickly gained traction in the food industry due to its superior stabilizing and thickening properties compared to naturally occurring substances like gum arabic and carrageenan. Its ability to maintain a stable emulsion between oil and water makes it ideal for products like salad dressings and sauces. It also improves the texture and shelf life of a variety of products, including baked goods, dairy items, and frozen foods.

One of the key factors in the rapid adoption of xanthan gum was its performance under a wide range of conditions; it is highly effective across various temperatures, pH levels, and in the presence of different salts and sugars. This versatility made it immensely popular among food manufacturers globally, who could use it to ensure product consistency and quality.

Regulatory Approvals

Xanthan gum’s journey from a laboratory discovery to a pantry staple involved rigorous testing and regulatory review. It was first approved for use in foods in 1968 by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Following the FDA’s approval, other international regulatory bodies, including the European Union and the World Health Organization, recognized xanthan gum as safe for consumption. These approvals were based on detailed assessments of its toxicity and metabolic fate in humans.

Global Market Presence

The global market for xanthan gum has grown significantly since its introduction, driven by its widespread acceptance and diverse applications. Today, xanthan gum is a key ingredient in many markets around the world, not only in food production but also in industries like cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and petroleum. Its demand continues to rise, fueled by the growing food processing industry and consumer preference for food products with improved texture and stability.

The historical development of xanthan gum is a testament to how scientific innovation can lead to ingredients that revolutionize food production and enhance our daily consumption experiences. As a stabilizer that was born out of necessity, xanthan gum has established itself as an indispensable part of the modern food industry.

The Science of Thickening

Xanthan gum’s role as a thickening agent in food products is a result of its unique molecular structure and interactions, particularly with water. Here’s a deeper look into how xanthan gum accomplishes its role at the molecular level.

Molecular Structure

Xanthan gum is composed of a backbone of glucose units linked by β-(1→4) glycosidic bonds, similar to cellulose. Attached to every second glucose unit is a trisaccharide side chain consisting of two mannose units and one glucuronic acid unit. This branched structure allows xanthan gum to form a gel-like network when exposed to water.

Interaction with Water

  1. Hydration and Swelling: When xanthan gum is added to water, it rapidly absorbs water and swells. This swelling occurs because the hydrophilic parts of the xanthan gum molecules (such as the hydroxyl groups on the sugars) form hydrogen bonds with water molecules. This process significantly increases the viscosity of the solution.
  2. Gel Formation: As more xanthan gum molecules hydrate and swell, they begin to entangle with each other, forming a three-dimensional network that traps water molecules. This network is not a true gel but behaves like one due to its high viscosity and the pseudo-plastic nature of the fluid. This means that the viscosity decreases under shear (stirring or shaking) but recovers when the shear is removed.

Interactions with Other Ingredients

Xanthan gum’s effectiveness as a thickening agent is also influenced by its interactions with other ingredients in a formulation:

  1. Salts and Ions: Xanthan gum is stable in the presence of salts and various ions, which can affect the ionic strength of the solution but do not significantly degrade the gel structure. This stability is a key advantage in food products that contain varying levels of salts and minerals.
  2. Acids and Bases: Xanthan gum is relatively stable across a broad pH range, maintaining its viscosity and gel-like properties in both acidic and basic environments. This makes it ideal for use in products like salad dressings and sauces, which may have varying pH levels.
  3. Interaction with Other Polysaccharides: Xanthan gum can synergistically interact with other polysaccharides, such as locust bean gum and guar gum, enhancing the gel strength and texture of the final product without requiring large amounts of each polysaccharide.

Visual Aids

Although I can’t directly show diagrams or molecular structures here, envisioning xanthan gum’s molecular structure as a long chain with side branches can help understand how these branches interlock with each other and with water molecules to create a dense, gel-like matrix. For a more detailed visual representation, a search for “xanthan gum molecular structure” or “xanthan gum water interaction diagram” in scientific literature or educational resources would provide images and diagrams that illustrate these interactions beautifully.

Understanding the molecular interactions of xanthan gum helps in appreciating its role as a versatile and indispensable thickening agent in food processing, capable of enhancing texture and stability under a wide range of conditions.

Benefits of Using Xanthan Gum in Food Processing

Xanthan gum serves as a critical ingredient in many food products due to its exceptional properties. Here are some of the key benefits it offers in food processing, alongside examples of foods where these properties are particularly advantageous.

  1. Texture Enhancement
    • Smoothness and Viscosity: Xanthan gum enhances the texture of food products by adding smoothness and viscosity. It makes soups and sauces creamier without altering their flavor.
    • Volume and Structure in Baked Goods: In gluten-free baking, xanthan gum provides the necessary structure and volume that gluten typically offers, helping to improve the crumb structure and chewiness of breads and pastries.
  2. Stabilization
    • Prevents Separation: It helps maintain the uniform dispersion of ingredients in products like salad dressings and mayonnaise, preventing the oil and water components from separating.
    • Freeze-Thaw Stability: Xanthan gum improves the freeze-thaw stability of frozen foods, which helps in reducing ice crystal formation during freezing and thawing cycles. This is crucial for maintaining the texture and integrity of frozen desserts like ice cream.
  3. Emulsification
    • Consistent Emulsions: It acts as an emulsifier, promoting the mixing of ingredients that normally do not mix, such as oil and water. This property is essential in products like creamy dressings or smooth sauces.
    • Long-term Stability: By improving the stability of emulsions, xanthan gum extends the shelf life of products by ensuring that their textural qualities do not degrade over time.
  4. Suspension of Particulates
    • Uniform Distribution: Xanthan gum helps in suspending herbs, spices, and other particulates in condiments and sauces, ensuring that each serving has a consistent flavor and appearance.
    • Appearance and Mouthfeel: It enhances the mouthfeel of beverages like smoothies and protein shakes by keeping mix-ins uniformly distributed without settling.
  5. Synergistic Effects with Other Gums
    • Enhanced Gelling Properties: When used in combination with other hydrocolloids like locust bean gum or guar gum, xanthan gum can create synergistic effects, leading to enhanced gelling properties and further improved texture.

Examples of Foods That Benefit from the Addition of Xanthan Gum

  • Sauces and Dressings: Xanthan gum helps maintain a creamy consistency and ensures that spices and other seasonings remain dispersed throughout the product.
  • Gluten-Free Baked Goods: It provides the necessary elasticity and stickiness that gluten usually contributes, essential for breads, cookies, and cakes.
  • Frozen Foods: In ice creams and frozen desserts, xanthan gum helps control ice crystal size, improving texture and mouthfeel.
  • Beverages: In milkshakes and smoothies, it helps integrate and maintain the suspension of diverse ingredients like fruits, proteins, and fibers.
  • Dairy Products: Yogurts and cottage cheeses benefit from xanthan gum as it improves their thickness and creaminess without affecting the dairy flavor.

The inclusion of xanthan gum in these products demonstrates its role as a multifunctional additive that significantly enhances the consumer experience by improving the sensory qualities and stability of food products.

what is xanthan gum used for in food
what is xanthan gum used for in food

Production Process of Xanthan Gum

The production of xanthan gum in a factory setting is a finely tuned process that involves several key steps from fermentation to drying. Each stage of production is crucial for ensuring the high quality and specific characteristics of the final product.

  1. Preparation of the Culture Medium
    • The first step is to prepare the culture medium that will nourish the Xanthomonas campestris bacteria. This medium typically includes sources of carbohydrates (like glucose or sucrose) for carbon, along with nitrogen sources, vitamins, and minerals to support bacterial growth.
  2. Sterilization
    • Before inoculation, the culture medium is sterilized to eliminate any unwanted microbes. This ensures that only the desired xanthan-producing bacteria grow during fermentation.
  3. Inoculation
    • The sterile medium is then inoculated with a culture of Xanthomonas campestris. The inoculation must be done under aseptic conditions to maintain the purity of the culture.
  4. Fermentation
    • The inoculated medium is transferred to a fermentation tank where conditions such as temperature, pH, and oxygen supply are carefully controlled to optimize the growth of the bacteria and the production of xanthan gum. Fermentation typically lasts several days.
  5. Harvesting
    • Once fermentation is complete, the resulting mixture contains xanthan gum along with bacterial cells and other components of the medium. The mixture is then processed to recover the xanthan gum.
  6. Purification
    • The xanthan gum is separated from the bacterial cells and other impurities through processes such as precipitation (often using isopropyl alcohol), centrifugation, and filtration.
  7. Drying
    • The purified xanthan gum is then dried, typically using spray drying, which turns it into a fine powder that can be easily handled and shipped.
  8. Milling and Packaging
    • Finally, the dried xanthan gum is milled to a specified particle size and packaged under controlled conditions to ensure it remains free from contamination.

Factors Affecting the Quality and Characteristics of Xanthan Gum

Several factors can influence the quality and functional characteristics of xanthan gum:

  • Source of Carbon: The type of sugar used in the fermentation medium can affect the molecular weight and rheological properties of xanthan gum. Different sugars might result in variations in viscosity or gel strength.
  • Fermentation Conditions: Variables like temperature, pH, and oxygen levels during fermentation can significantly impact the yield and quality of xanthan gum. Optimal conditions must be maintained to ensure consistent production.
  • Purification Techniques: The methods used to purify xanthan gum can affect its purity and performance. Residual proteins or other impurities can impact the functionality of xanthan gum in food applications.
  • Drying Process: The method and conditions of drying can influence the moisture content and flow properties of the powder. Proper drying is essential to prevent clumping and to preserve the thickening properties.
  • Particle Size: The final particle size of xanthan gum, controlled during the milling process, can affect its solubility and dispersibility in food products.

Maintaining strict control over these factors ensures that the xanthan gum produced meets the required standards and performs consistently across various applications in the food industry. This control, combined with rigorous quality testing, guarantees that the xanthan gum will perform as expected, enhancing texture, stability, and viscosity in food products.

Challenges and Solutions in Xanthan Gum Production

Producing xanthan gum involves complex biochemical processes that can be susceptible to various challenges. Ensuring consistency, purity, and efficiency are among the top concerns in industrial production. Here’s how manufacturers address these issues through technological advancements and stringent quality control measures.

Common Challenges

  1. Maintaining Consistency
    • Challenge: Variability in the fermentation process can lead to differences in the viscosity, molecular weight, and texture of xanthan gum. Factors such as slight deviations in temperature, pH, or nutrient concentrations can significantly affect the product.
    • Solution: Advanced automation and control systems in fermentation equipment allow for precise control of all variables. Continuous monitoring and adjustment of conditions ensure that the process remains stable and consistent.
  2. Ensuring Purity
    • Challenge: Contamination by other microorganisms or residual impurities from the culture medium can affect the safety and functionality of xanthan gum.
    • Solution: Sterile processing environments and rigorous aseptic techniques are employed to prevent microbial contamination. Additionally, sophisticated filtration and purification techniques ensure that the final product is free of unwanted residues.
  3. Scalability
    • Challenge: Scaling up from laboratory to industrial production without losing product quality or increasing costs disproportionately.
    • Solution: Pilot scale testing and modular process design help in understanding the impacts of scaling and refining the process before full-scale production begins.

Technological Advancements

  1. Bioreactor Design
    • Modern bioreactors are designed to optimize the growth conditions of Xanthomonas campestris, improving yield and efficiency. These bioreactors can automatically adjust mixing, oxygenation, and temperature based on real-time data.
  2. Genetic Engineering
    • Advances in genetic engineering allow for the development of bacterial strains that produce higher yields of xanthan gum or strains that can utilize a wider range of substrates, reducing production costs.
  3. Real-Time Analytics
    • The use of real-time analytical technologies, such as in-situ sensors and probes, provides immediate feedback on the health of the fermentation process and quality of xanthan gum being produced.

Quality Control Measures

  1. Raw Material Inspection
    • Strict quality control begins with the inspection of raw materials. Ensuring high-quality sugars and nutrients reduces the risk of poor fermentation performance and contamination.
  2. In-Process Testing
    • Frequent sampling and testing during the production process help in detecting any deviations early. Parameters like viscosity, pH, and microbial activity are regularly monitored.
  3. Final Product Testing
    • Before packaging, xanthan gum undergoes several tests to ensure its viscosity, solubility, and purity meet the required specifications. This may include tests for particle size, microbial contamination, and functional performance in application trials.
  4. Certifications and Compliance
    • Manufacturers must adhere to various international standards and regulations, such as ISO standards, FDA guidelines, and EU regulations. Obtaining and maintaining these certifications necessitates rigorous internal quality assurance processes and regular audits.

By implementing these technological advancements and quality control measures, manufacturers can tackle the inherent challenges in xanthan gum production, ensuring that the product not only meets the industry’s stringent standards but also satisfies consumer expectations for quality and safety.

Emerging Trends and Innovations in Xanthan Gum Production

The production and application of xanthan gum are constantly evolving, thanks to ongoing research and technological innovations. These advancements are not only enhancing the efficiency and sustainability of production processes but are also expanding the potential uses of xanthan gum in food technology and beyond. Here’s a look at some of the recent developments and future possibilities.

Recent Advancements in Biotechnology

  1. Genetic Engineering
    • Researchers are exploring genetic modifications of the Xanthomonas campestris bacteria to enhance their efficiency and the quality of xanthan gum produced. For example, genetically engineered strains can yield gums with specific molecular weights or viscosities, tailored for particular applications, which can lead to more specialized uses in the food industry and other sectors.
    • Genetic engineering also opens avenues for the bacteria to utilize alternative and less expensive substrates, such as agricultural byproducts, thereby reducing production costs and environmental impact.
  2. Enzymatic Modification
    • Enzymatic processes are being developed to modify xanthan gum after production. These modifications can alter the viscosity or the gel-forming properties of xanthan gum, making it more suitable for specific applications, such as low-fat food products where texture and mouthfeel are crucial.
  3. Fermentation Process Optimization
    • Advances in bioreactor design and process control systems allow for more precise control over the fermentation conditions. These improvements help in achieving higher yields and consistent quality while reducing energy and resource consumption.
    • The integration of real-time monitoring technologies provides instant feedback on the process parameters, enabling immediate corrections and thus enhancing the overall efficiency and reliability of production.

Potential Future Applications and Modifications

  1. Health and Dietary Products
    • As consumer demand for dietary-specific products, like gluten-free and low-calorie foods, continues to grow, xanthan gum’s role in these products is expanding. Its ability to mimic the texture and consistency of traditional gluten-containing products makes it invaluable in gluten-free baking.
    • Future modifications might focus on enhancing the health benefits of xanthan gum, such as enriching it with prebiotic fibers or other beneficial additives to promote gut health.
  2. Sustainable Production Practices
    • Ongoing research is focusing on making xanthan gum production more sustainable. This includes the use of renewable resources as substrates and methods to reduce waste and energy use during production.
    • Efforts to reclaim and recycle components used in the fermentation and purification processes, such as water and organic solvents, are also being enhanced.
  3. Nanotechnology Applications
    • The use of xanthan gum in nanotechnology, for example in the creation of nano-emulsions or nano-encapsulations, is an emerging field. These applications could lead to the development of new food packaging materials that improve shelf-life and food safety or controlled-release flavor enhancers that could revolutionize food taste profiles.
  4. Hybrid Hydrocolloids
    • The trend towards combining xanthan gum with other natural gums to create hybrid hydrocolloids with unique properties is growing. These hybrids can be engineered to provide specific textures, viscosities, and stability characteristics required in innovative food products.

These innovations in the production and application of xanthan gum are shaping its future in the food industry and beyond. With continuous research and development, xanthan gum is poised to play an even greater role in meeting the evolving needs of both manufacturers and consumers.

Environmental and Health Considerations of Xanthan Gum

Xanthan gum is prevalent in many food products and industrial applications due to its effective thickening and stabilizing properties. However, like any widely used substance, it’s important to consider both its environmental impact and potential health implications.

Environmental Impact of Xanthan Gum Production

  1. Resource Consumption
    • Xanthan gum production primarily relies on carbohydrate sources such as glucose derived from crops like corn, wheat, or soy. The cultivation of these crops requires significant land, water, and energy resources, contributing to environmental pressures such as habitat destruction and water scarcity.
    • The process also involves substantial energy inputs, particularly during fermentation and drying phases, contributing to carbon emissions.
  2. Waste Generation
    • The production process generates organic waste, including spent growth media and bacterial biomass, which needs to be properly managed to prevent environmental contamination.
    • Innovations in bioprocessing aim to minimize waste through strategies like recycling water and reusing residual biomass for bioenergy or agricultural applications, thereby reducing the overall environmental footprint.
  3. Chemical Use
    • The use of chemicals in the fermentation process and for cleaning and sterilizing equipment can lead to pollution if not handled correctly. Steps to mitigate this include using less toxic chemicals, improving effluent treatment systems, and adopting greener manufacturing practices.

Health Implications of Consuming Xanthan Gum

  1. General Safety
    • Xanthan gum is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the FDA and approved for use in food products by international regulatory bodies like the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). It is considered non-toxic and safe for consumption in reasonable quantities.
  2. Allergic Reactions
    • Although rare, some individuals may experience allergic reactions to xanthan gum, especially if they are hypersensitive to the bacteria used in its production. Symptoms could range from mild gastrointestinal discomfort to more severe reactions for those with more pronounced sensitivities.
  3. Digestive Health
    • In typical dietary amounts, xanthan gum can aid in digestion due to its high fiber content. However, excessive consumption may lead to digestive issues such as bloating, gas, or diarrhea, particularly in people with sensitive digestive systems or those unaccustomed to fiber-rich diets.
  4. Dietary Considerations
    • Xanthan gum is a popular ingredient in gluten-free and low-fat diets as it can mimic the texture and consistency that gluten or fats provide. This makes it an essential component for people with celiac disease or those following specific dietary restrictions.

Monitoring and Regulation

  • Regular monitoring and updates to regulations ensure that xanthan gum remains safe for consumer health and minimally impactful on the environment. As both health and environmental awareness increase, producers are encouraged to adopt more sustainable and transparent practices.

In conclusion, while xanthan gum plays a crucial role in food processing and other industries, ongoing research and development into its production and use are vital to address and mitigate any environmental and health impacts. This ensures that its benefits can be enjoyed without undue consequences to our planet and our health.

Conclusion

Xanthan gum, a versatile polysaccharide produced by the fermentation of sugars by Xanthomonas campestris, has become an indispensable component in various industries, particularly in food processing. This article explored its complex production process, unique molecular interactions, environmental considerations, and its numerous applications that underscore its critical role in modern manufacturing and consumption patterns.

Summary of Key Points

  • Production and Properties: We discussed the meticulous fermentation process that transforms simple sugars into the high-value polysaccharide known for its exceptional thickening, stabilizing, and emulsifying properties. The science behind how xanthan gum interacts with water and other ingredients at the molecular level explains its ability to enhance texture and maintain the stability of food products under a range of conditions.
  • Applications in Food Processing: Xanthan gum’s benefits extend beyond basic thickening to improve the mouthfeel and consistency of products, contribute to freeze-thaw stability, and facilitate the suspension of solids in liquids. Its compatibility with a variety of ingredients and conditions makes it a favorite among food technologists.
  • Environmental and Health Considerations: Despite its benefits, the production of xanthan gum poses environmental challenges, including resource consumption and waste generation. Health-wise, while it is safe for most people, potential allergenicity and digestive responses in sensitive individuals are noted, underscoring the need for balanced consumption.
  • Innovations and Future Directions: Advancements in genetic engineering, process optimization, and sustainable practices highlight the ongoing evolution in xanthan gum production. These innovations promise to enhance its performance and sustainability, reducing the ecological footprint while improving functionality.

Final Thoughts on Xanthan Gum’s Future Role

Looking forward, xanthan gum is poised to continue its significant impact on food technology. Its ability to adapt to the rising demands for cleaner labels and more sustainable production methods aligns with global trends towards healthier and environmentally friendly food production. As research pushes the boundaries of what xanthan gum can achieve, especially when combined with other biopolymers or through novel production techniques, its role in food science appears increasingly vital.

Xanthan gum not only exemplifies how biotechnology can transform simple materials into essential products but also reflects the dynamic nature of food science—a field constantly adapting to meet the nutritional needs and environmental responsibilities of tomorrow. The continued refinement and application of xanthan gum will undoubtedly enhance both the quality of food products and the efficiency of production processes, making it a key player in the future of food processing and beyond.

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